Borei Class Submarine - Russia:
Borei Class (Project 955) is the new class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine produced by Russia and operated by the Russian Navy, while the Severodvinsk-class submarine is the new Russian attack submarine. The class is intended to replace the Delta III, Delta IV and Typhoon classes now in Russian Navy service. The class is named after Boreas, the North wind.
Despite being a replacement for many types of submarines, the Borei-class submarines are much smaller than those of the Typhoon class in both volume and crew (107 people as opposed to 160 for the Typhoons). The goal of this downsizing is to reduce the cost to build and maintain the submarines.
The first design work started in the mid-1980s, and the construction of the first unit of the Borei class started in 1996. A new submarine-launched ballistic missile was developed in parallel, called the R-39UTTH "Bark". However, the work on this missile was abandoned, and a new missile called the Bulava was designed. The submarine needed to be redesigned to accommodate the new missile, and the design name was changed to Project 955. The vessels are being built at the Northern Machinebuilding Enterprise (Sevmash) in Severodvinsk, and were designed by the Rubin Marine Equipment Design Bureau (Rubin). Because of the repeated failures during Bulava test launches, some experts suggested that the Borei submarine could instead be armed with R-29RMU Sineva missiles. The Sineva is already in active duty on the Delta IV-class submarine.
Advances include a compact and integrated hydrodynamically efficient hull for reduced broadband noise and the first ever use of pump-jet propulsion on a Russian nuclear submarine. The Borei submarines are approximately 170 metres (560 ft) long, 13 metres (43 ft) in diameter, and have a maximum submerged speed of at least 46 kilometres per hour (25 kn; 29 mph). They are equipped with a floating rescue chamber designed to fit in the whole crew.
Smaller than the Typhoon class, the Boreis were initially slated to carry 12 missiles but are able to carry four more due to the decrease in mass of the 36-ton Bulava SLBM (a modified version of the Topol-M ICBM) over the originally proposed R-39UTTH Bark. Cost is some ₽23 billion (USD$890 million), in comparison the cost of an Ohio-class SSBN was around USD$2 billion per boat (1997 prices). More details