T-14 Armata Tank - Russia:
The T-14 Armata is a Russian main battle tank based on the Armata Universal Combat Platform. It is the first series-produced next generation tank. The Russian Army plans to acquire 2,300 T-14s in the period 2015–2020. It commenced testing in 2016 and production soon afterwards.
Featuring a number of innovative characteristics, the T-14 Armata represents a new generation of Russian main battle tanks. The most significant new feature is the use of an unmanned turret, with the crew of three seated in an armored capsule in the front of the hull. The development of the tank took five years.
The main armament of the T-14 is the 2A82-1M 125 mm (4.92 in) smoothbore cannon, a replacement for the 2A46 of previous Russian and Soviet tanks. Its muzzle energy is greater than one of the world’s previously considered best cannons: the German Leopard 2 Rheinmetall 120 mm gun. The 125 mm gun has 15-20 percent improved accuracy and its rolling fire angular dispersion has improved 1.7 times. Features include an absence of a fume extractor (due to the unmanned turret), a firing rate of 10–12 rounds per minute, left side casing ejection port for the 125mm gun and a maximum effective-penetration range of 8 km with ATGMs. The detection range of the tank's optical sensors is more than 5 km for tank-sized targets in daylight, and at least 3.5 km at night through the thermal imaging channel. The gunner sight's optical channel is equipped with 4× and 12× optical zoom. The laser rangefinder has a theoretical maximum range of 7.5 km. These systems are duplicated; in addition there is a weaker third system that can fire on the move. The crew uses a high-definition camera with a 360-degree field.
The T-14 Armata is powered by a ChTZ 12Н360 (A-85-3A) diesel engine delivering up to 1,500 hp. The engine's theoretical maximum power, not normally used, is 2,000 hp, at the cost of radically decreasing its service life, projected min 2,000 hours at nominal 1,500 hp, comparable to other modern tank engines, and up to 10,000 hours at moderated 1,200 hp. The engine is electronically controlled. Operational range is over 500 km.
The T-14's crew of three is protected by an internal armored capsule with more than 900 mm RHA equivalent, increasing their chance of survival in case of a catastrophic kill. Both the chassis and the turret are equipped with the Malachit dual-Explosive reactive armour (ERA) system on the front, sides and the top. The turret's shape is designed to reduce its radio and thermal signature. The tank uses an integrated, computerized control system which monitors the state and functions of all tank modules. In battle, the software can analyze threats and then either suggest or automatically take actions to eliminate them, while without the external threat it can detect and rectify crew errors. Serial production of the Armata Platform's ceramic armor components began in mid-2015.
The T-14 Armata is equipped with 26.5–40 GHz Active electronically scanned array radar, which has a range of 100 km and is used mainly by the APS. Up to 40 airborne or 25 ground targets down to 0.3 m (12 in) in size can be tracked simultaneously. The tracking system provides an automatic firing solution for the destruction of the target, which can then be transferred to either the APS or the main gun control computers. The tank will be able to give target designation for artillery and serve in air defence and reconnaissance roles. The T-14 uses highly protected communication channels that connect a group of T-14s and the command post. More details